It is dominated by gentle slopes with vineyards and a plenty of valleys with small canyons.
Generally the climate of Crete has contributed to the creation of a very rich flora, with different ecosystems, which combine a unique collection. Maybe there is no other region, with the size of Crete, has so many plant species. There are 1624 original native species on the island, 170 of them are indigenous to Crete. Endemic plants are unevenly distributed and are mostly found in high mountains, canyons and isolated areas. Some of them are very rare or almost eliminated.
The nature of Heraklion prefecture is characterized by abundant olive groves and vineyards, low vegetation dominated by garrigue and aromatic plants and also a variety of species and colors from its endemic plants.
Similar in variety and interest is the fauna of the island. Due to its geographic position and its paleogeographic and geological history, there are animals which feature elements of heterogeneous origin.
The majority of them are in mountain ranges, gorges and caves (unique ecosystems for shelter, feeding and rest). The most important kinds in the area are small mammals, rodents, amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates and vertebrates, while the most popular animals are ferrets, martens, hedgehogs, asbestos, etc.
Also very interesting are the populations of birds such as predators, which meet in the ecological park of Yiouchta, where exists one of the largest colonies of predators in the European area.